Amphibians and Reptiles of Costa Rica

 

Bolaños, Federico1*; Savage, Jay M.2 and Chaves, Gerardo1

 

1 Escuela de Biología / Universidad de Costa Rica / San Pedro, 11501-2060 San José / Costa Rica

 2 Department of Biology / San Diego State University / San Diego, California 92182-4614 / USA

*Corresponding author

 

(Originally Published in 2009, Last Actualization on December 6, 2011)

 

 

 

 

 

index

Eublepharidae

Gekkonidae

Gymnophthalmidae

Iguanidae

Phrynosomatidae

Polychrotidae

Scincidae

Teiidae

Xantusiidae

SERPENTES

Anomalepididae

Boidae

Colubridae

Dipsadidae

Elapidae

Leptotyphlopidae

Loxocemidae

Natricidae

Typhlopidae

Ungaliophiidae

Viperidae

Testudidata

Cheloniidae

Chelydridae

Dermochelyidae

Emydidae

Geoemydidae

Kinosternidae

Acknowledgements

Bibliography

How to cite?

IntroducTion

The list of the amphibians and reptiles of Costa Rica continues to grow. In addition, as knowledge increases there are ongoing changes in nomenclature. Following the comprehensive coverage of Savage (2002) a revised list of taxa was published by Savage and Bolaños (2009a). We now present an updated electronic version that will be revised on a continuing basis. Explanatory comments and cross reference are from Savage and Bolaños (2009a).

 

The number in parenthesis following each taxon above the species level indicates the number of species included. Following the names of higher taxa is the number of families and the number of genera (in brackets) included. Asterisks denotes introduced taxa.  We wish to thank all those individuals who have provided us with publications and comments to contribute to this updated list and in advance we acknowledge all who continue with this collaboration.

HERPETOFAUNA OF COSTA RICA 47[157](435)

 

CLASS  AMPHIBIA  Linné, 1758  17[49](196)

 

ORDER  ANURA  Hogg, 1939  14[43](145)

 

FAMILY  AROMOBATIDAE  Grant, Frost, Caldwell, Gagliardo, Haddad, Kok, Means, Noonan, Schargel & Wheeler, 2006  [1](1)

Allobates  Zimmermann & Zimmermann, 1988  (1)

Allobates talamancae  (Cope, 1875)

 

FAMILY  BUFONIDAE  J. E. Gray, 1825  [5](18)

Atelopus  C. Duméril & Bibron, 1841  (4)

Atelopus chiriquiensis  Shreve, 1936

Atelopus chirripoensis  Savage & Bolaños, 2009b

Atelopus senex  Taylor, 1952

Atelopus varius  (Lichtenstein & Martens, 1856)

Chaunus  Wagler, 1828  (1)

Chaunus marinus  (Linné, 1758)

Crepidophryne  Cope, 1889  (3)

Crepidophryne chompipe  Vaughan & Mendelson, 2007

Crepidophryne epiotica  (Cope, 1875)

Crepidophryne guanacaste  Vaughan & Mendelson, 2007

Incilius  Cope, 1863  (9)

Incilius aucoinae  (O'Neill & Mendelson, 2004)

Incilius coccifer  (Cope, 1866)

Incilius coniferus  (Cope, 1862)

Incilius fastidiosus  (Cope, 1875)

Incilius holdridgei  (Taylor, 1952)

Incilius luetkenii  (Boulenger, 1891)

Incilius melanochlorus  (Cope, 1877)

Incilius periglenes  (Savage, "1966", 1967)

Incilius valliceps  (Wiegmann, 1833)

Rhaebo  Cope, 1862  (1)

Rhaebo haematiticus  Cope, 1862

 

FAMILY  Centrolenidae  Taylor, 1951  [5](13)

The generic classification follows Guayasamin et al. (2009).

Cochranella  Taylor, 1951  (2)

Cochranella euknemos  (Savage & Starrett, 1967)

Cochranella granulosa  (Taylor, 1949)

Espadarana  Guayasamin, Castroviejo-Fisher, Trueb, Ayarzagüena, Rada & Vilá, 2009  (1)

The following species was included in Centrolenella by Savage and Bolaños (2009a).

Espadarana prosoblepon  (Boettger, 1892)

Hyalinobatrachium  Ruiz-Carranza & Lynch, 1991  (6)

Hyalinobatrachium chirripoi  (Taylor, 1958)

Hyalinobatrachium colymbiphyllum  (Taylor, 1949)

Hyalinobatrachium fleischmanni  (Boettger, 1893)

Hyalinobatrachium talamancae  (Taylor, 1952)

Hyalinobatrachium valerioi  (Dunn, 1931)

Hyalinobatrachium vireovittatum  (Starrett & Savage, 1973)

Sachatamia  Guayasamin, Castroviejo-Fisher, Trueb, Ayarzagüena, Rada & Vilá, 2009  (2)

The following species was included in Cochranella by Savage and Bolaños (2009a).

Sachatamia albomaculata  (Taylor, 1949)

The following species was included in Centrolenella by Savage and Bolaños (2009a).

Sachatamia ilex  (Savage, 1967)

Teratohyla  Taylor, 1951  (2)

The following species were included in Cochranella by Savage and Bolaños (2009a).

Teratohyla pulverata  (W. Peters, 1873)

Teratohyla spinosa  (Taylor, 1949)

 

FAMILY  CRAUGASTORIDAE  Hedges, Duellman & Heinicke, 2008  [1](28)

Craugastor  Cope, 1862  (28)

Craugastor andi  (Savage, 1974)

Craugastor angelicus  (Savage, 1975)

Craugastor bransfordii  (Cope, "1885", 1886)

Craugastor catalinae  (Campbell & Savage, 2000)

Craugastor crassidigitus  (Taylor, 1952)

Craugastor cuaquero  (Savage, 1980)

Craugastor escoces  (Savage, 1975)

Craugastor fitzingeri  (O. Schmidt, 1857)

Craugastor fleischmanni  (Boettger, 1892)

Craugastor gollmeri  (W. Peters, 1863)

Craugastor gulosus  (Cope, 1875)

Craugastor megacephalus  (Cope, 1875)

Craugastor melanostictus  (Cope, 1875)

Craugastor mimus  (Taylor, 1955)

Craugastor noblei  (Barbour & Dunn, 1921)

Craugastor obesus  (Barbour, 1928)

Craugastor persimilis  (Barbour, 1926)

Craugastor phasma  (Lips & Savage, 1996)

Craugastor podiciferus  (Cope, 1875)

Craugastor polyptychus  (Cope, "1885", 1886)

Craugastor ranoides  (Cope, "1885", 1886)

Craugastor rayo  (Savage & DeWeese, 1979)

Craugastor rhyacobatrachus  (Campbell & Savage, 2000)

Craugastor rugosus  (W. Peters, 1873)

Craugastor stejnegerianus  (Cope, 1893)

Craugastor talamancae  (Dunn, 1931)

Craugastor taurus  (Taylor, 1958)

Craugastor underwoodi  (Boulenger, 1896)

 

FAMILY  DENDROBATIDAE  Cope, 1865 (1850)  [4](7)

Dendrobates  Wagler, 1830  (1)

Dendrobates auratus  (Girard, "1854", 1855)

Oophaga  Bauer, 1994  (2)

Oophaga granulifera  (Taylor, 1958)

Oophaga pumilio  (O. Schmidt, 1857)

Phyllobates  C. Duméril & Bibron, 1841  (2)

Phyllobates lugubris  (O. Schmidt, 1857)

Phyllobates vittatus  (Cope, 1893)

Silverstoneia  Grant, Frost, Caldwell, Gagliardo, Haddad, Kok, Means, Noonan, Schargel & Wheeler, 2006  (2)

Silverstoneia flotator  (Dunn, 1931)

Silverstoneia nubicola  (Dunn, 1924)

 

FAMILY  ELEUTHERODACTYLIDAE  Lutz, 1954  [2](7)

Diasporus  Hedges, Duellman & Heinicke, 2008  (5)

Diasporus diastema  (Cope, 1875)

Diasporus hylaeformis  (Cope, 1875)

Diasporus tigrillo  (Savage, 1997)

Diasporus ventrimaculatus  Chaves, García-Rodríguez, Mora & Leal, 2009

Diasporus vocator  (Taylor, 1955)

*Eleutherodactylus  C. Duméril & Bibron, 1841  (2)

The following species was recently collected (UCR 20746-20747) in Turrialba.

*Eleutherodactylus coqui  Thomas, 1966, addition to fauna

AmphibiaWeb (2009) does not list the following species for Costa Rica because it is introduced and without established populations (Savage and Bolaños 2009a).

*Eleutherodactylus johnstonei  Barbour, 1914

 

FAMILY  HEMIPHRACTIDAE  Peters, 1862  [1](1)

Gastrotheca  Fitzinger, 1843  (1)

Gastrotheca cornuta  (Boulenger, 1898)

 

FAMILY  HYLIDAE  Rafinesque, 1815  [15](43)

SUBFAMILY  HYLINAE  Rafinesque, 1815  [13](37)

Anotheca  H. M. Smith, 1939  (1)

Anotheca spinosa  (Steindachner, 1864)

Dendropsophus  Fitzinger, 1843  (3)

Dendropsophus ebraccatus  (Cope, 1874)

Dendropsophus microcephalus  (Cope, "1885", 1886)

Dendropsophus phlebodes  (Stejneger, 1906)

Duellmanohyla  Campbell & E. Smith, 1992  (3)

Duellmanohyla lythrodes  (Savage, 1968)

Duellmanohyla rufioculis  (Taylor, 1952)

Duellmanohyla uranochroa  (Cope, 1875)

Ecnomiohyla  Faivovich, Haddad, Garcia, Frost, Campbell & Wheeler, 2005  (3)

Ecnomiohyla fimbrimembra  (Taylor, 1948)

Ecnomiohyla miliaria  (Cope, "1885", 1886)

The following species was included as Ecnomiohyla miliaria by Savage and Bolaños 2009a. It was recognized as different by Savage and Kubicki (2010).

Ecnomiohyla sukia Savage & Kubicki, 2010

Hyloscirtus  W. Peters, 1882  (2)

Hyloscirtus colymba  (Dunn, 1931)

Hyloscirtus palmeri  (Boulenger, 1908)

Hypsiboas  Wagler, 1830  (2)

Hypsiboas rosenbergi  (Boulenger, 1898)

Hypsiboas rufitelus  (Fouquette, 1961)

Isthmohyla  Faivovich, Haddad, Garcia, Frost, Campbell & Wheeler, 2005  (11)

Isthmohyla angustilineata  (Taylor, 1952)

Isthmohyla calypsa  (Lips, 1996)

Isthmohyla debilis  (Taylor, 1952)

Isthmohyla lancasteri  (Barbour, 1928)

Isthmohyla picadoi  (Dunn, 1937)

Isthmohyla pictipes  (Cope, 1875)

Isthmohyla pseudopuma  (Günther, 1901)

Isthmohyla rivularis  (Taylor, 1952)

Isthmohyla tica  (Starrett, 1966)

Isthmohyla xanthosticta  (Duellman, 1968)

Isthmohyla zeteki  (Gaige, 1929)

*Osteopilus  Fitzinger, 1843  (1)

*Osteopilus septentrionalis  (C. Duméril & Bibron, 1841)

Ptychohyla  Taylor, 1944  (1)

Ptychohyla legleri  (Taylor, 1958)

Scinax  Wagler, 1830  (3)

Scinax boulengeri  (Cope, 1887)

Scinax elaeochroa  (Cope, 1875)

Scinax staufferi  (Cope, 1865)

Smilisca  Cope, 1865  (5)

Smilisca baudinii  (C. Duméril & Bibron, 1841)

Smilisca phaeota  (Cope, 1862)

Smilisca puma  (Cope, "1884", 1885)

Smilisca sila  Duellman & Trueb, 1966

Smilisca sordida  (W. Peters, 1863)

Tlalocohyla  Faivovich, Haddad, Garcia, Frost, Campbell & Wheeler, 2005  (1)

Tlalocohyla loquax  (Gaige & Stuart, 1934)

Trachycephalus  Tschudi, 1838  (1)

Trachycephalus venulosus  (Laurenti, 1768)

SUBFAMILY  PHYLLOMEDUSINAE  Günther, 1858  [2](6)

Agalychnis  Cope, 1864  (5)

Agalychnis annae  (Duellman, 1963)

Agalychnis callidryas  (Cope, 1862)

The following species was included in the genus Hylomantis by Savage and Bolaños (2009a) but was referred to Agalychnis by Faivovich et al. (2010).

Agalychnis lemur  (Boulenger, 1882)

Agalychnis saltator  Taylor, 1955

Agalychnis spurrelli  Boulenger, 1913

Cruziohyla  Faivovich, Haddad, Garcia, Frost, Campbell & Wheeler, 2005  (1)

Cruziohyla calcarifer  (Boulenger, 1902)

 

FAMILY  LEIUPERIDAE  Bonaparte, 1850  [1](1)

Engystomops  Jiménez de la Espada, 1872  (1)

Engystomops pustulosus  (Cope, 1864)

 

FAMILY  LEPTODACTYLIDAE  Werner, 1896 (1838)  [1](5)

Leptodactylus  Fitzinger, 1826  (5)

Leptodactylus fragilis  (Brocchi, 1877)

Leptodactylus insularum  Barbour, 1906

Leptodactylus melanonotus  (Hallowell, "1860", 1861)

Leptodactylus poecilochilus  (Cope, 1862)

Leptodactylus savagei  Heyer, 2005

 

FAMILY  MICROHYLIDAE  Günther, "1858", 1859  [3](3)

Gastrophryne  Fitzinger, 1843  (1)

Gastrophryne pictiventris  (Cope, "1885", 1886)

Hypopachus  Keferstein, 1867  (1)

Hypopachus variolosus  (Cope, 1866)

Nelsonophryne  Frost, 1987  (1)

Nelsonophryne aterrima  (Günther, 1900)

 

FAMILY  RANIDAE  Rafinesque, 1814  [1](6)

Lithobates  Fitzinger, 1843  (6)

AmphibiaWeb (2009) does not list the following species for Costa Rica because it is introduced and without established populations (Savage and Bolaños 2009a).

*Lithobates catesbeianus  (Shaw, 1802)

Lithobates forreri  (Boulenger, 1883)

Lithobates taylori  (H. M. Smith, 1959)

Lithobates vaillanti  (Brocchi, 1877)

Lithobates vibicarius  (Cope, 1894)

Lithobates warszewitschii  (O. Schmidt, 1857)

 

FAMILY  RHINOPHRYNIDAE  Günther, "1858", 1859  [1](1)

Rhinophrynus  C. Duméril & Bibron, 1841  (1)

Rhinophrynus dorsalis  C. Duméril & Bibron, 1841

 

FAMILY  STRABOMANTIDAE  Hedges, Duellman & Heinicke, 2008  [2](11)

Pristimantis  Jiménez de la Espada, "1870", 1871  (10)

Pristimantis altae  (Dunn, 1942)

Pristimantis caryophyllaceus  (Barbour, 1928)

Pristimantis cerasinus  (Cope, 1875)

Pristimantis cruentus  (W. Peters, 1873)

Pristimantis educatoris  Ryan, Lips & Giermakowski, 2010

Pristimantis gaigeae  (Dunn, 1931)

Pristimantis moro  (Savage, 1965)

Pristimantis pardalis  (Barbour, 1928

Pristimantis ridens  (Cope, 1866)

The following species was recently collected (UCR 20301-20303) in the area of La Lucha and Tres Colinas in the Talamanca mountain range.

Pristimantis taeniatus (Boulenger, 1912), addition to fauna

Strabomantis  Peters, 1863  (1)

Strabomantis bufoniformis  (Boulenger, 1896)

 

ORDER  CAUDATA  Scopoli, 1777  1[3](44)

 

FAMILY  PLETHODONTIDAE  J. E. Gray, 1850  [3](44)

Bolitoglossa  C. Duméril, Bibron & A. Duméril, 1854  (23)

Frost (2009) lists Bolitoglossa anthracina and Bolitoglossa pygmaea as possibly occurring in Costa Rica. They are known from localities in western Panama near the Costa Rica frontier but have not been collected in Costa Rica.

Subgénero  Bolitoglossa  C. Duméril, Bibron & A. Duméril, 1854  (2)

Bolitoglossa lignicolor  (W. Peters, 1873)

Bolitoglossa striatula  (Noble, 1918)

Subgénero  Eladinea  Miranda Ribeiro, 1937   (20)

Bolitoglossa bramei  Wake, Savage & Hanken, 2007

Bolitoglossa cerroensis  (Taylor, 1952)

Bolitoglossa colonnea  (Dunn, 1924)

Bolitoglossa compacta  Wake, Brame & Duellman, 1973

Bolitoglossa diminuta  Robinson, 1976

Bolitoglossa epimela  Wake & Brame, 1963

Bolitoglossa gomezi  Wake, Savage & Hanken, 2007

Bolitoglossa gracilis  Bolaños, Robinson & Wake, 1987

Bolitoglossa marmorea  (Tanner & Brame, 1961)

Bolitoglossa minutula  Wake, Brame & Duellman, 1973

Bolitoglossa nigrescens  (Taylor, 1949)

Bolitoglossa obscura  Hanken, Wake & Savage, 2005

Bolitoglossa pesrubra  (Taylor, 1952)

Bolitoglossa robinsoni  Bolaños & Wake, 2009

Bolitoglossa robusta  (Cope, 1894)

Bolitoglossa schizodactyla  Wake & Brame, 1966

Bolitoglossa sombra  Hanken, Wake & Savage, 2005

Bolitoglossa sooyorum  Vial, 1963

Bolitoglossa subpalmata  (Boulenger, 1896)

Bolitoglossa tica  García-París, Parra-Olea & Wake, 2008

Subgénero  Pachymandra  Parra-Olea, García-París & Wake, 2004  (1)

Bolitoglossa alvaradoi  Taylor, 1954

Nototriton  Wake & Elias, 1983  (7)

Nototriton abscondens  (Taylor, 1948)

Nototriton gamezi  García-París & Wake, 2000

Nototriton guanacaste  Good & Wake, 1993

Nototriton major  Good & Wake, 1993

Nototriton picadoi  (Stejneger, 1911)

Nototriton richardi  (Taylor, 1949)

Nototriton tapanti  Good & Wake, 1993

Oedipina  Keferstein, 1868  (14)

Oedipina alfaroi  Dunn, 1921

Oedipina alleni  Taylor, 1954

Oedipina altura  Brame, 1968

Oedipina carablanca  Brame, 1968

Oedipina collaris  (Stejneger, 1907)

Oedipina cyclocauda  Taylor, 1952

Oedipina gracilis  Taylor, 1952

Oedipina grandis  Brame & Duellman, 1970

Oedipina pacificensis  Taylor, 1952

Oedipina paucidentata  Brame, 1968

Oedipina poelzi  Brame, 1963

Oedipina pseudouniformis  Brame, 1968

Oedipina savagei  García-París & Wake, 2000

Oedipina uniformis  Keferstein, 1868

 

ORDER  GYMNOPHIONA  Müller, 1832  2[3](7)

 

FAMILY  CAECILIIDAE  Rafinesque, 1814  [1](1)

Oscaecilia  Taylor, 1968  (1)

Oscaecilia osae  Lahanas & Savage, 1992

 

The following family was included as Caeciliidae by Savage and Bolaños (2009a), it was recognized as different by Wilkinson et al. (2011)

FAMILY  DERMOPHIIDAE  Taylor, 1969  [2](6)Dermophis  W. Peters, 1880  (5)

Dermophis costaricense  Taylor, 1955

Dermophis glandulosus  Taylor, 1955

Dermophis gracilior  Günther, 1902

Dermophis occidentalis  Taylor, 1955

Dermophis parviceps  (Dunn, 1924)

Gymnopis  W. Peters, 1874  (1)

Gymnopis multiplicata  W. Peters, 1874

 

CLASE  REPTILIA  Laurenti, 1768  30[108](239)

 

ORDER  CROCODILIA  Gmelin, "1788", 1789  2[2](2)

 

FAMILY  ALLIGATORIDAE  Cuvier, 1807  [1](1)

Caiman  Spix, 1825  (1)

Caiman crocodilus  (Linné, 1758)

 

FAMILY  CROCODYLIDAE  Gmelin, "1788", 1789  [1](1)

Crocodylus  Laurenti, 1768  (1)

Crocodylus acutus  (Cuvier, 1807)

 

ORDER  SQUAMATA  Oppel, 1811  22[97](222)

 

SUBORDER  SAURIA  Macartney, 1802  11[33](83)

 

FAMILY  ANGUIDAE  J. E. Gray, 1825  [4](7)

Celestus  J. E. Gray, 1839  (3)

Celestus cyanochloris  Cope, 1894

Celestus hylaius  Savage & Lips, 1993

Celestus orobius  Savage & Lips, 1993

Coloptychon  Tihen, 1943  (1)

Coloptychon rhombifer  (W. Peters, 1876)

Diploglossus  Wiegmann, 1834  (2)

Diploglossus bilobatus  (O'Shaughnessy, 1874)

Diploglossus monotropis  (Kuhl, 1820)

Mesaspis  Cope, 1877  (1)

Mesaspis monticola  (Cope, "1878", 1877)

 

FAMILY  CORYTOPHANIDAE  Fitzinger, 1843  [2](4)

Basiliscus  Laurenti, 1768  (3)

Basiliscus basiliscus  (Linné, 1758)

Basiliscus plumifrons  Cope, 1875

Basiliscus vittatus  Wiegmann, 1828

Corytophanes  Boie in Schlegel, 1827  (1)

Corytophanes cristatus  (Merrem, "1821", 1822)

 

FAMILY  EUBLEPHARIDAE  Boulenger, 1883  [1](1)

Coleonix  J. E. Gray, 1845  (1)

Coleonix mitratus  (W. Peters, 1863)

 

FAMILY  GEKKONIDAE  J. E. Gray, 1845  [7](12)

SUBFAMILY  GEKKONINAE  J. E. Gray, 1845  [4](6)

*Hemidactylus  Oken, 1817  (3)

*Hemidactylus frenatus  Schlegel, 1836

*Hemidactylus garnoti  C. Duméril & Bibron, 1836

*Hemidactylus mabouia  (Moreau de Jonnès, 1818)

*Lepidodactylus  Fitzinger, 1843  (1)

*Lepidodactylus lugubris  (C. Duméril & Bibron, 1836)

Phyllodactylus  J. E. Gray, 1828  (1)

Phyllodactylus tuberculosus  Wiegmann, "1834", 1835

Thecadactylus  Oken, 1817  (1)

Thecadactylus rapicauda  (Houttuyn, 1782)

SUBFAMILY  SPHAERODACTYLINAE  Underwood, 1954  [3](6)

Gonatodes  Fitzinger, 1843  (1)

Gonatodes albogularis  (C. Duméril & Bibron, 1836)

Lepidoblepharis  Peracca, 1897   (1)

Lepidoblepharis xanthostigma  (Noble, 1916)

Sphaerodactylus  Wagler, 1830  (4)

Sphaerodactylus graptolaemus  Harris & Kluge, 1984

Sphaerodactylus homolepis  Cope, "1885", 1886

Sphaerodactylus millepunctatus  Hallowell, "1860", 1861

Sphaerodactylus pacificus  Stejneger, 1903

 

FAMILY  GYMNOPHTHALMIDAE  MacLean, 1974  [6](6)

Anadia  J. E. Gray, 1845  (1)

Anadia ocellata  J. E. Gray, 1845

Bachia  J. E. Gray, 1845  (1)

Bachia blairi  (Dunn, 1940)

Gymnophthalmus  Merrem, 1820  (1)

Gymnophthalmus speciosus  (Hallowell, "1860", 1861)

Leposoma  Spix, 1825  (1)

Leposoma southi  Ruthven & Gaige, 1924

Potamites  Doan & Castoe, 2005  (1)

Potamites apodemus  (Uzzell, 1966)

Ptychoglossus  Boulenger, 1890  (1)

Ptychoglossus plicatus  (Taylor, 1949)

 

FAMILY  IGUANIDAE  Gray, 1827  [2](3)

Ctenosaura  Wiegmann, 1828  (2)

Ctenosaura quinquecarinata  (J. E. Gray, 1842)

Ctenosaura similis  (J. E. Gray, 1831)

Iguana  Laurenti, 1768  (1)

Iguana iguana  (Linné, 1758)

 

FAMILY  PHRYNOSOMATIDAE  Fitzinger, 1843  [1](3)

Sceloporus  Wiegmann, 1828  (3)

Sceloporus malachiticus  Cope, 1864

Sceloporus squamosus  Bocourt, 1874

Sceloporus variabilis  Wiegmann, 1834

 

FAMILY  POLYCHROTIDAE  Fitzinger, 1843  [4](36)

*Ctenonotus  Fitzinger, 1843  (1)

*Ctenonotus cristatellus  (C. Duméril & Bibron, 1837)

Dactyloa  Wagler, 1830  (4)

Dactyloa frenata  (Cope, 1899)

The following species was included in Dactyloa chocorum by Savage and Bolaños (2009a) but was recognized as distinct by Poe et al. (2009).

Dactyloa ibanezi  (Poe, Latella, Ryan & Schaad, 2009)

Dactyloa insignis  (Cope, 1871)

Dactyloa microtus  (Cope, 1871)

Norops  Wagler, 1830  (30)

Norops altae  (Dunn, 1930)

Norops aquaticus  (Taylor, 1956)

Norops auratus  (Daudin, 1802)

Norops biporcatus  (Wiegmann, 1834)

Norops capito  (W. Peters, 1863)

Norops carpenteri  (A. A. Echelle, A. F. Echelle & Fitch, 1971)

The following species was included in Norops pentaprion by Savage and Bolaños (2009a) but was recognized as distinct by Köhler (2010).

Norops charlesmyersi (Köhler, 2010)

Norops cryptolimifrons  (Köhler & Sunyer, 2008)

Norops cupreus  (Hallowell, "1860", 1861)

The following species was recently collected in Sitio Las Tablas (Köhler and Vargas 2010)

Norops datzorum (Köhler, Ponce, Sunyer & Batista, 2007), addition to fauna

Norops fungosus  (C. Myers, 1971)

Norops humilis  (W. Peters, 1863)

Norops intermedius  (W. Peters, 1863)

Norops kemptoni  (Dunn, 1940)

Norops lemurinus  (Cope, 1861)

Norops limifrons  (Cope, 1862)

Norops marsupialis  (Taylor, 1956)

The following species was included in Norops altae by Savage and Bolaños (2009a) but was recognized as distinct by Köhler (2009).

Norops monteverde (Köhler, 2009)

Norops oxylophus  (Cope, 1875)

Norops pachypus  (Cope, 1875)

Norops pentaprion  (Cope, 1862)

Norops polylepis  (W. Peters, "1873", 1874)

Norops quaggulus  (Cope, 1885)

*Norops sagrei  (C. Duméril & Bibron, 1837)

The following species was included in Norops vociferans by Savage and Bolaños (2009a) and recognized as a synonym by Köhler (2007).

Norops salvini (Boulenger, 1885)

The following species was included in Norops altae by Savage and Bolaños (2009a) but was recognized as distinct by Köhler (2011).

Norops tenorioensis (Köhler, 2011)

Norops townsendi  (Stejneger, 1900)

Norops tropidolepis  (Boulenger, 1885)

The following species was included in Norops sericeus by Savage and Bolaños (2009a) but was recognized as distinct by Köhler and Vesely (2010) and represents the Costa Rican species of the species complex..

Norops unilobatus (Köhler & Vesely, 2010)

Norops woodi  (Dunn, 1940)

Polychrus  Cuvier, "1817", 1816  (1)

Polychrus gutturosus  Berthold, 1845

 

FAMILY  SCINCIDAE  J. E. Gray, 1825  [3](3)

Mabuya  Fitzinger, 1826  (1)

Mabuya unimarginata  Cope, 1862

Mesoscincus  Griffith, Ngo & Murphy, 2000  (1)

Mesoscincus managuae  (Dunn, 1933)

Sphenomorphus  Fitzinger, 1843  (1)

Sphenomorphus cherriei  (Cope, 1893)

 

FAMILY  TEIIDAE  J. E. Gray, 1827  [2](6)

Ameiva  Meyer, 1795  (5)

Ameiva ameiva  (Linné, 1758)

Ameiva festiva  (Lichtenstein & von Martens, 1856)

Ameiva leptophrys  (Cope, 1893)

Ameiva quadrilineata  (Hallowell, "1860", 1861)

Ameiva undulata  (Wiegmann, 1834)

Aspidoscelis  Fitzinger, 1843  (1)

Aspidoscelis deppii  (Wiegmann, 1834)

 

FAMILY  XANTUSIIDAE  Baird, 1859  [1](2)

Lepidophyma  A. Duméril, 1851  (2)

Lepidophyma flavimaculatum  A. Duméril, 1851

Lepidophyma reticulatum  Taylor, 1955

 

SUBORDER  SERPENTES  Linné, 1758  11[64](139)

 

FAMILY  ANOMALEPIDIDAE  Taylor, 1939  [3](3)

Anomalepis  Jan in Jan & Sordelli, 1860  (1)

Anomalepis mexicanus  Jan in Jan & Sordelli, 1860

Helminthophis  W. Peters, 1860  (1)

Helminthophis frontalis  (W. Peters, 1860)

Liotyphlops  W. Peters, 1881  (1)

Liotyphlops albirostris  (W. Peters, 1857)

 

FAMILY  BOIDAE  J. E. Gray, 1825  [3](4)

Boa  Linné, 1758  (1)

Boa constrictor  Linné, 1758

Corallus  Daudin, 1803  (2)

Corallus annulatus  (Cope, 1875)

Corallus ruschenbergerii  (Cope, 1875)

Epicrates  Wagler, 1830  (1)

Epicrates maurus  Gray, 1849

 

FAMILY  COLUBRIDAE  Oppel, "1810", 1811  [19](39)

Various authors have recently proposed major changes in the classification of snakes of this family. We follow Zaher et al. (2009) in referring only the genera included in the Colubrinae by Savage and Bolaños (2009a) to  this family.

Chironius  Fitzinger, 1826  (3)

Chironius exoletus  (Linné, 1758)

The following species, included in Chironius carinatus by Savage and Bolaños (2009a), was removed from the synonymy of that species by Hollis (2006).

Chironius flavopictus  (Werner, 1909)

Chironius grandisquamis  (W. Peters, 1868)

Coluber  Linné, 1758  (1)

Coluber mentovarius  (C. Duméril, Bibron & A. Duméril, 1854)

Dendrophidion  Fitzinger, 1843  (4)

Dendrophidion nuchale  (W. Peters, 1863)

Dendrophidion paucicarinatum  (Cope, 1894)

Dendrophidion percarinatum  (Cope, 1893)

Dendrophidion vinitor  H. M. Smith, 1941

Drymarchon  Fitzinger, 1843  (1)

Drymarchon melanurus  (C. Duméril, Bibron & A. Duméril, 1854)

Drymobius  Fitzinger, 1843  (3)

Drymobius margaritiferus  (Schlegel, 1837)

Drymobius melanotropis  (Cope, 1875)

Drymobius rhombifer  (Günther, 1860)

Lampropeltis  Fitzinger, 1843  (1)

Lampropeltis triangulum  (Lacépéde, 1788)

Leptodrymus  Amaral, 1927  (1)

Leptodrymus pulcherrimus  (Cope, 1874)

Leptophis  Bell, 1825  (5)

Leptophis ahaetulla  (Linné, 1758)

Leptophis depressirostris  (Cope, "1860", 1861)

Leptophis mexicanus  C. Duméril, Bibron & A. Duméril, 1854

Leptophis nebulosus  Oliver, 1942

Leptophis riveti  Despax, 1910

Mastigodryas  Amaral, "1934", 1935  (1)

Mastigodryas melanolomus  (Cope, 1868)

Oxybelis  Wagler, 1830  (3)

Oxybelis aeneus  (Wagler, 1824)

Oxybelis brevirostris  (Cope, "1860", 1861)

Oxybelis fulgidus  (Daudin, 1803)

Pseustes  Fitzinger, 1843  (1)

Pseustes poecilonotus  (Günther, 1858)

Rhinobothryum  Wagler, 1830  (1)

Rhinobothryum bovallii  Andersson, 1916

Scaphiodontophis  Taylor & H. M. Smith, 1943  (1)

Scaphiodontophis venustissimus  (Günther, 1894)

Scolecophis  Fitzinger, 1843  (1)

Scolecophis atrocinctus  (Schlegel, 1837)

Senticolis  Dowling & Fries, 1987  (1)

Senticolis triaspis  (Cope, 1866)

Spilotes  Wagler, 1830  (1)

Spilotes pullatus  (Linné, 1758)

Stenorrhina  C. Duméril, 1853  (2)

Stenorrhina degenhardtii  (Berthold, 1845)

Stenorrhina freminvillii  C. Duméril, Bibron & A. Duméril, 1854

Tantilla  Baird & Girard, 1853  (7)

Tantilla alticola  (Boulenger, 1903)

Tantilla armillata  Cope, 1875

Tantilla reticulata  Cope, 1860

Tantilla ruficeps  (Cope, 1894)

Tantilla schistosa  (Bocourt, 1883)

Tantilla supracincta  (W. Peters, 1863)

Tantilla vermiformis  (Hallowell, "1860", 1861)

Trimorphodon  Cope, 1861  (1)

Trimorphodon quadruplex  H. M. Smith, 1941

 

FAMILY  DIPSADIDAE  Bonaparte, 1838  [24](65)

Zaher et al. (2009) recognized the Dipsadidae as a family distinct from the Colubridae. The subfamilies Dipsadinae and Xenodontinae recognized by Savage and Bolaños (2009a) as subdivisions of the Colubridae were transferred to the Dipsadidae by Zaher et al. (2009). The genera Crisantophis,  Enulius and Hydromorphus included in Dipsadinae by Savage and Bolaños (2009a) where not assigned to subfamily by Zaher et al. (2009), we continue to include this genera in the Dipsadinae. Zaher et al. (2009) included Nothopsis in the Dipsadidae but without subfamily assignment. We had followed Dowling and Pinou (2003) in placing this genus in the Xenoderminae (see Savage and Bolaños 2009a for discussion)  but accept Zaher et al.'s (2009) conclusion that this placement is probably in error.

Nothopsis  Cope, 1871  (1)

Nothopsis rugosus  Cope, 1871

SUBFAMILY  DIPSADINAE  Bonaparte, 1838  [16](54)

Amastridium  Cope, "1860", 1861  (1)

Amastridium veliferum  Cope, "1860", 1861

Coniophanes  Hallowell, 1860  (3)

Coniophanes bipunctatus  (Günther, 1858)

Coniophanes fissidens  (Günther, 1858)

Coniophanes piceivittis  Cope, "1869", 1870

Crisantophis  Villa, 1971  (1)

Crisantophis nevermanni  (Dunn, 1937)

Dipsas  Laurenti, 1768  (3)

Dipsas articulata  (Cope, 1868)

Dipsas bicolor  (Günther, 1895)

Dipsas tenuissima  Taylor, 1954

Enulius  Cope, "1870", 1871  (2)

Enulius flavitorques  (Cope, 1869)

Enulius sclateri  (Boulenger, 1894)

Geophis  Wagler, 1830  (7)

Geophis brachycephalus  (Cope, 1871)

Geophis downsi  Savage, 1981

Geophis godmani  Boulenger, 1894

Geophis hoffmanni  (W. Peters, 1859)

Geophis ruthveni  Werner, 1925

Geophis talamancae  Lips & Savage, 1994

Geophis zeledoni  Taylor, 1954

Hydromorphus  W. Peters, 1859  (1)

Hydromorphus concolor  W. Peters, 1859

Imantodes  C. Duméril, 1853  (3)

Imantodes cenchoa  (Linné, 1758)

Imantodes gemnistratus  Cope, 1861

Imantodes inornatus  Boulenger, 1896

Leptodeira  Fitzinger, 1843  (4)

Leptodeira annulata  (Linné, 1758)

Leptodeira nigrofasciata  Günther, 1868

Leptodeira rubricata  (Cope, 1893)

Leptodeira septentrionalis  (Kennicott, 1859)

Ninia  Baird & Girard, 1853  (4)

Ninia celata  McCranie & Wilson, 1995

Ninia maculata  (W. Peters, 1861)

Ninia psephota  (Cope, 1875)

Ninia sebae  (C. Duméril, Bibron & A. Duméril, 1854)

Rhadinaea  Cope, 1863  (5)

Rhadinaea calligaster  (Cope, 1875)

Rhadinaea decorata  (Günther, 1858)

Rhadinaea godmani  (Günther, 1865)

Rhadinaea pulveriventris  Boulenger, 1896

Rhadinaea serperaster  Cope, 1871

Sibon  Fitzinger, 1826  (7)

Sibon annulatus  (Günther, 1872)

Sibon anthracops  (Cope, 1868)

Sibon argus  (Cope, 1875)

Sibon dimidiatus  (Günther, 1872)

Sibon lamari  Solórzano, 2002

Sibon longifrenis  (Stejneger, 1909)

Sibon nebulatus  (Linné, 1758)

Tretanorhinus  C. Duméril, Bibron & A. Duméril, 1854  (1)

Tretanorhinus nigroluteus  Cope, "1861", 1862

Trimetopon  Cope, "1884", 1885  (5)

Trimetopon gracile  (Günther, 1872)

Trimetopon pliolepis  Cope, 1894

Trimetopon simile  Dunn, 1930

Trimetopon slevini  Dunn, 1940

Trimetopon viquezi  Dunn, 1937

Tropidodipsas  Günther, 1858  (1)

Tropidodipsas sartorii  Cope, 1863

Urotheca  Bibron in Cocteau & Bibron, 1843  (6)

Urotheca decipiens  (Günther, 1893)

Urotheca euryzona  (Cope, 1862)

Urotheca fulviceps  (Cope, "1885", 1886)

Urotheca guentheri  (Dunn, 1938)

Urotheca myersi  Savage & Lahanas, 1989

Urotheca pachyura  (Cope, 1875)

SUBFAMILY  XENODONTINAE  Bonaparte, 1845  [7](10)

Clelia  Fitzinger, 1826  (3)

Clelia clelia  (Daudin, 1803)

Clelia equatoriana  (Amaral, 1924)

Clelia scytalina  (Cope, "1866", 1867)

Conophis  W. Peters, 1860  (1)

Conophis lineatus  (C. Duméril, Bibron & A. Duméril, 1854)

Erythrolamprus  F. Boie, 1826  (2)

Zaher et al. (2009) included Erythrolamprus as a synonym of Liophis but recognized this relationship need to be studied in more detail. Here we continue using the generic name Erythrolamprus.

Erythrolamprus bizona  Jan, 1863

Erythrolamprus mimus  (Cope, "1868", 1869)

Liophis  Wagler, 1830  (1)

Liophis epinephelus  Cope, 1862

Oxyrhopus  Wagler, 1830  (1)

Oxyrhopus petolarius  (Linné, 1758)

Siphlophis  Fitzinger, 1843  (1)

Siphlophis compressus  (Daudin, 1803)

Xenodon  H. Boie in Schlegel, 1826  (1)

Xenodon rabdocephalus  (Wied, 1824)

 

FAMILY  ELAPIDAE  F. Boie, 1827  [2](6)

Micrurus  Wagler in Spix, 1824  (5)

Micrurus alleni  K. Schmidt, 1936

Micrurus clarki  K. Schmidt, 1936

Micrurus mipartitus  (C. Duméril, Bibron & A. Duméril, 1854)

Micrurus mosquitensis  K. Schmidt, 1933

Micrurus nigrocinctus  (Girard, "1854", 1855)

Pelamis  Daudin, 1803  (1)

Pelamis platura  (Linné, 1766)

 

FAMILY  LEPTOTYPHLOPIDAE  Stejneger, "1891", 1892  [1](1)

Epictia J. E. Gray, 1845

Adalsteinsson et al. (2009) recognized Epictia as diferent from Leptotyphlops.

The following species was included in Leptotyphlops by Savage and Bolaños (2009a). For discussion of the species assignment see Savage (2002).

Epictia ater (Taylor, “1939”, 1940)

 

FAMILY  LOXOCEMIDAE  Cope, 1861  [1](1)

Loxocemus  Cope, 1861  (1)

Loxocemus bicolor  Cope, 1861

 

FAMILY  NATRICIDAE  Bonaparte, 1838  [1](2)

Zaher et al. (2009) recognized Natricidae as distinct from the Colubridae. It was listed as a subfamily of the later by Savage and Bolaños (2009a).

Thamnophis  Fitzinger, 1843  (2)

Thamnophis marcianus  (Baird & Girard, 1853)

Thamnophis proximus  (Say, 1823)

 

FAMILY  TYPHLOPIDAE  Fitzinger, 1826  [1](1)

Typhlops  Oppel, "1810", 1811  (1)

Typhlops costaricensis  Jiménez & Savage, 1962

 

FAMILY  UNGALIOPHIIDAE  McDowell, 1987  [1](1)

Ungaliophis  Müller, 1880  (1)

Ungaliophis panamensis  K. Schmidt, 1933

 

FAMILY  VIPERIDAE  Oppel, "1810", 1811  [8](16)

Agkistrodon  Palisot de Beauvois, 1799  (1)

Agkistrodon bilineatus  (Günther, 1863)

Atropoides  Werman, 1992  (2)

Atropoides mexicanus  (C. Duméril, Bibron & A. Duméril, 1854)

Atropoides picadoi  (Dunn, 1939)

Bothriechis  W. Peters, 1859  (4)

Bothriechis lateralis  W. Peters, 1862

Bothriechis nigroviridis  W. Peters, 1859

Bothriechis schlegelii  (Berthold, 1845)

Bothriechis supraciliaris  (Taylor, 1954)

Bothrops  Wagler, 1824  (1)

Bothrops asper  (Garman, "1883", 1884)

Cerrophidion  Campbell & Lamar, 1992  (1)

Cerrophidion godmani  (Günther, 1863)

Crotalus  Linné, 1758  (1)

Crotalus simus  Latrielle, 1801

Lachesis  Daudin, 1803  (2)

Lachesis melanocephala  Solórzano & Cerdas, 1986

Lachesis stenophrys  Cope, 1875

Porthidium  Cope, 1871  (4)

Porthidium nasutum  (Bocourt, 1868)

Porthidium ophryomegas  (Bocourt, 1868)

Porthidium porrasi  Lamar & Sasa, 2003

Porthidium volcanicum  Solórzano, 1994

 

ORDER  TESTUDINATA  Oppel, 1811  6[9](15)

 

FAMILY  CHELONIIDAE  J. E. Gray, 1825  [4](5)

Caretta  Rafinesque, 1814  (1)

Caretta caretta  (Linné, 1758)

Chelonia  Brongniart, 1800  (2)

Chelonia agassizii  Bocourt, 1868

Chelonia mydas  (Linné, 1758)

Eretmochelys  Fitzinger, 1843  (1)

Eretmochelys imbricata  (Linné, 1766)

Lepidochelys  Fitzinger, 1843  (1)

Lepidochelys olivacea  (Eschscholtz, 1829)

 

FAMILY  CHELYDRIDAE  Agassiz, 1857 (1839)  [1](1)

Chelydra  Schweigger, 1812  (1)

Chelydra acutirostris  W. Peters, 1862

 

FAMILY  DERMOCHELYIDAE  Baur, 1888 (1825)  [1](1)

Dermochelys  Blainville, 1816  (1)

Dermochelys coriacea  (Vandelli, 1761)

 

FAMILY  EMYDIDAE  Schmid, 1819  [1](2)

Trachemys  Agassiz, 1857  (2)

Trachemys emolli  (Legler, 1990)

Trachemys venusta  (J. E. Gray, 1856)

 

FAMILY  GEOEMYDIDAE  Theobald, 1868  [1](3)

Rhinoclemmys  Fitzinger, 1835  (3)

Rhinoclemmys annulata  (J. E. Gray., 1860)

Rhinoclemmys funerea  (Cope, 1875)

Rhinoclemmys pulcherrima  (J. E. Gray, 1855)

 

FAMILY  KINOSTERNIDAE  J. E. Gray, 1869  [1](3)

Kinosternon  Spix, 1824  (3)

Kinosternon angustipons  Legler, 1965

Kinosternon leucostomum  (C. Duméril & Bibron, 1851)

Kinosternon scorpioides  (Linné, 1766)

 Acknowledgements

We thank James R. McCranie and David B. Wake for the valuable comments to the manuscript.

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How to cite?

Bolaños, F., J. M. Savage & G. Chaves. 2011. Amphibians and Reptiles of Costa Rica. Listas Zoológicas Actualizadas UCR: http://museo.biologia.ucr.ac.cr/Listas/LZAPublicaciones.htm. Museo de Zoología UCR. San Pedro, Costa Rica. Last actualization on December 6, 2011. Originally published on 2009. PDF.