Instructions to Authors
Zoológicas UCR is dedicated to the publication of lists of species,
lists of type specimens, range
extension, and natural history notes of Mesoamerican animal
species. Parallel to this, there is “Listas
Zoológicas Actualizadas UCR”,
where authors can maintain an updated species list, citing the original
will be considered on the condition that they have not been published
elsewhere, nor have they been submitted, in part or
entirety, for publication
elsewhere. Manuscripts may be in English or Spanish. If the chosen
language is not your native language, please have a competent person
check your writing before submitting the manuscript. Consultations
regarding the submission of a manuscript can be directed to the main
editor or the editor of the taxonomic group. Publication, including
color images, is free of charge; although the author will not receive
reprints, online access will be free of charge and in high resolution
manuscripts will be reviewed by at least two external reviewers and the
editor of the respective area. Authors should suggest at least three
reviewers when submitting their manuscript.
FORMAT and style of the MANUSCRIPT
should be sent in digital format by e-mail (in a .doc or .rtf file) and
will be reviewed digitally. They should be single spaced, including
references and tables, on letter-size pages (21.59 x 27.94 cm) without
any color background. The font should be Times New Roman, size 12. At
the end of the document you should place tables and graphs produced by
Excel or other programs in an editable format with access to the
numbers. Digital photographs or drawings should be in separate files
with the name of the figure (e.g. Figura_1.jpg). Color figures are
preferred, although they should produce recognizable patterns when
printed in black and white.
of the MANUSCRIPT
lists and notes pages should be numbered, starting with the first page.
The number should be positioned at the bottom right. All manuscripts
1. Title of
the paper, centered, in bold, in a single paragraph. In the case of
lists or distributional notes on species, the
title should specify the taxonomic group and geographic region.
2. Name and
email address of all authors, in a single centered paragraph with the
format: surname, name (s) (only one written in full, the others with
initials), and e-mail address in parentheses after the name, followed by
a superscript number to identify the address of the author (when there
are several authors with different addresses); an asterisk to identify
the corresponding author, which should be stated at the end of the
addresses. Two authors (or the penultimate and last author when there
are more) should be separated by “and”; when there are three or more
authors authors a semicolon should be used to separate the names.
Bolaños, Federico (federico.bolanosucr.ac.cr)
Savage, Jay M. (savy1cox.net)
and Chaves, Gerardo (cachi13gmail.com)
Institutional address of the authors, each in a centered paragraph and
preceded by the appropriate superscript number. Use “/” to denote a new
line in the address. Example:
Escuela de Biología / Universidad de Costa Rica / San Pedro, 11501-2060
San José / Costa Rica
2 Department of Biology
/ San Diego State University / San Diego, California 92182-4614 / USA
title, for placing on every other page; the other pages will have the
names of the authors.
LISTS of species and of type specimens of collections
should be followed
by an Abstract of
not more than 150 words, three to eight
Key Words, and then the same translated into Spanish and
placed under RESUMEN and PALABRAS CLAVES. If the authors
are not fluent in Spanish they may ask the editor of the group for help
with the translation. The
Abstract, Key Words, RESUMEN and PALABRAS CLAVES
should be written thusly in bold, followed by a colon and what follows
should include the following sections:
introduction, materials and
methods (when appropriate, a description of the site, how and
when the data were obtained, citing collecting/research permits if
necessary; also briefly describe the data analysis, without citing
references unless little-known statistical procedures were used),
where figures and tables should be placed),
(include only references cited in the text). Each section should be
written in bold with uppercase letters and center justified. If a
section has subtitles, this should be in bold, left justified
and only the first letter in uppercase.
with another structure may be accepted upon approval of the editor of
the group. Tables and figures go in this order and after the
NOTES oN distribution and NATURAL history
title, authors and author addresses comes the text of the note, without
sections but following the sequence of a scientific paper, and then the
followed by the bibliography. If there are tables and figures, these
should be placed after the bibliography and in the text you should
suggest where these are to be inserted. Other formats should be
discussed with the editor of the respective group.
names are in italics in the text and bibliography. The first time a
species name (and optionally for names of higher taxa) is mentioned,
include the author(s) of the name and the year in which it was first
used; however, do not include this author in the bibliography unless it
is a reference that is cited in the main text. Although all manuscripts
are reviewed, remaining errors are the resposability of the authors. Authors of species
names should be used as follows: one author Atelopus chiriquiensis
Shreve, 1936; two authors Incilius aucoinae (O'Neill & Mendelson,
2004); and three or more Silverstoneia Grant, Frost, Caldwell,
Gagliardo, Haddad, Kok, Means, Noonan, Schargel & Wheeler, 2006. Notice
that all authors are cited, and the last and penultimate authors are
separated “&”; also, use a comma between the last author and the year.
Remember that authors in parentheses indicates that the species was
originally described in another genus.
a period is to be used for the decimal point and comma for thousands
(except in citing years). When citing statistical tests in the results
include the value of the statistic used, degrees of freedom, and the
probability with three decimal places (if the probability is less than
0.001 it should be p < 0.001 not p = 0. 000). Exact probabilities are
preferred. A significant result is one having a probability of less than
0.050; this need not be mentioned except when another significance value
is used, which must be justified. Units should be in the international
system of units (for questions see
should be a space between the number and the unit, but a period is not
used after the unit, unless it is at the end of a sentence.
CITATION OF REFERENCES in the text
are separated by “and” (“y” when you write in Spanish) and when there
are three or more authors et al. is used after the first.
Examples: “Vargas (1983)” or “(Cortés 1975)”, “Breedy and Vargas (1998)”
or “(Springer and Umaña 2005)”, “Janzen et al. (1987)” or
“(Savage et al. 2004)”. When there is more than one references
they should be listed in chronological order “(Vargas et al.
1985, Sasa 1993, Villa and Valerio 2005)”. When there are two or more
publications by the same author: “(Solórzano 1995, 1996)” or “(Solórzano
1994a, b, 1995)”.
FORMAT of references
Each reference should be a separate paragraph (in the word processor)
and without indentation. All authors of the publication should be
included; the penultimate and last author are separated by the
The complete name of the
journal should be the used (i.e. not abbreviated). Citation of papers in
press are only acceptable when the publication date is known and a copy
of the acceptance letter is provided to the editor of the group.
author in a journal:
2006. Some ecological notes on Agalychnis annae (Anura: Hylidae).
authors in a journal:
Blaustein, A. R.
& D. B. Wake. 1995. The puzzle of declining amphibian populations.
Scientific American 272:56-61.
two authors in a journal:
M., K. E. Bell, T. Philippi, M. Sasa, F. Bolaños, G. Chaves, J. M.
Savage & M. A. Donnelly. 2007. Amphibian and reptile declines over 35
years at La Selva, Costa Rica. Proceedings of the National Academy of
Sciences of the United States of America 104:8352-8356.
in an edited book:
Notice the use of In:
before the editors of the book.
Bolaños, F., F. Castro, C. Cortez,
I. De la Riva, T. Grant, S. B. Hedges, W. R. Heyer, R. Ibáñez, E. La
Marca, E. Lavilla, D. Leite-Silvano, S. Lötters, G. Parra-Olea, S.
Reichle, R. Reynolds, L. Rodríguez, G. Santos-Barrera, N. J. Scott, C.
Ubeda, A. Veloso, M. Wilkinson & B. E. Young.
2008. Amphibians of the
Neotropical Realm. Pp. 92-99. In: S. N. Stuart, M. Hoffmann , J.
S. Chanson, N. A. Cox , R. J. Berridge, P. Ramani & B. E. Young (eds.).
Threatened Amphibians of the World. Lynx Ediciones, Barcelona, Spain.
Savage, J. M.
2002. The Amphibians and Reptiles of Costa Rica: A Herpetofauna Between
Two Continents, Between Two Seas. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
USA. 934 p.
from the Web
2009. Information on amphibian biology and conservation. http://amphibiaweb.org/.
Berkeley, California, USA. Seen:
June 7, 2009.
unpublished work will only be accepted in justified cases. In the case
of scientific or technical literature available on the internet, the
online address should be provided. In other cases unpublished work can
be cited as “unpublished data” or “personal communication”. You should
consult with the editor of the taxonomic group in question regarding the
use of unpublished work.
should be numbered consecutively with arabic numbers and placed after
the bibliography in the manuscript (but suggest where they should be
located in the text). With very few exceptions tables will be vertical.
Refer to the tables as Table 1, Tables 3 and 4, or Table 2-4. We suggest
that the tables be done as spreadsheets with programs such as Excel, and
then copied and pasted in the document as a table, not as an image.
should be numbered consecutively with Arabic numbers and placed after
the bibliography and tables (but suggest where they should be located in
the text). Each figure should be a separate page or file (.jpg, .tiff,
.bmp or .gif) in high resolution and uncompressed. In the case of
photographs we ask that the authors do the required composition and send
it in a resolution of 300 pixels per inch, 16 cm maximum width and 23 cm
maximum height. Scanned drawings should have a minimum resolution of 600
pixels per inch. With very few exceptions the figures will be vertical.
Cite the figures as Figure 1, Figures 3 and 4, Figures 2-4, or Figure
1A. In figures that summarize data make sure that the legends are in a
readable size. It is preferable that graphs and maps be done with a
graphics program and that they be pasted in the document with access to
the information. When they are figures in separate files, legends should
be included after the tables or bibliography and before the figures that
come in the same text file. When the figures are part of the text file
the legend goes with the figure.
PROOFS AND GALLEYS
of the publication will be done and sent to the corresponding author for
verify that the following files are sent:
• Text file (including
tables and figure legends)
• Files of figures,
• Names and
e-mail addresses of least three suggested external reviewers.
should be sent by e-mail to the editor of the